Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are present a promising technology for renewable energy production in specific applications. Basically, the MFC is capable of directly converting metabolic energy of a bio-convertible substrate into electricity. This reactor omits the necessity for gas treatment and reduces of sludge production due to the harvesting of electrical energy. A MFC consists of an anode, a cathode, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) and an electrically external circuit. In the anode of a MFC, no oxygen is present and bacteria need to switch from their natural electron acceptor to an insoluble acceptor, such as the MFC anode. Due to the ability of bacteria to transfer electrons to the anode electrode, we can use a MFC to collect the electrons originating from the microbial metabolism. The electron transfer can be conducted via ① soluble electron shuttles, ② nanowires ③ direct contact (Figure 1). The electrons then flow through an electrical circuit with a load or resistor to the cathode. However, until now, studies are being made to low power generation of an inconvenient form, the electron transfer proceobial fuel cell. In this laboratory, we continuously operate two-chambered MFCs to maximize power generation. Therefore, our objectives are to demonstrate a continuous power generation using two chambered MFCs and to identify key bacteria responsible for power generation on the anode electrode surfaces (anode biofilms) during the operation.
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